Economics For People

On the subject of Economics for the People

“It is very vital for our democracy to work that average individuals be aware of primary concerns and fundamental ideas of economics.” – Ha-Joon Chang

The economy for the longest time has been the territory of the ivory structure, in which unique dialect and opaque theorems cause it to unavailable to many people. That is an issue.

Ha-Joon Chang, bestselling author of “Economics For People” points out the essential principles in economics, strengthening anyone to have the government, the society, and economic climate responsible.

The World Must Go On Even Without Trump

The US President has been blocking an important body of the World Trade Organization for months. The European Union is now presenting a new association. That should impress Washington for one reason in particular.

Under President Donald Trump, the United States has strongly been away from the world. He showed this most recently in the current corona crisis, in which Trump speaks disparagingly of the crisis reaction of Europeans despite the desperate situation in his own country and even calls the coronavirus the China virus. While Brussels was only astonished at the beginning of Trump’s tenure in view of the new tones from Washington, the stiffness in the shock has now given way to a grim determination.

Europe has no choice but to work on a new world order in the age of Trump – and the latest result is now presented by EU Trade Commissioner Phil Hogan. His employees have been working for months to keep the global trade order alive despite Trump’s attacks: not only that the US imposes punitive tariffs on key trading partners and thus destroys wealth worldwide.

The US government is also working to ensure that trading partners within the WTO can no longer defend themselves against punitive tariffs . To do this, they block the dispute settlement within the Geneva organization that has been working successfully for almost a quarter of a century.

The U.S. Economic Boom Under Trump’s Administration

So is Trump right? There is a lot to be said about that. First of all, the president inherited this boom from his predecessor Obama. Then there is, and that also applies to the previous president, a substantial growth difference with the previous duration records of the American economy. The long boom in the 1960s had an average annual economic growth of 4.9 percent. The heyday of the 1990s produced an average of 3.6 percent economic growth annually. But the current period of continuous growth is tame, with an average growth of only 2.2 percent. It has been going well for a long time, but also very slowly. Last year, economic growth amounted to 2.3 percent. Trump’s new budget assumes 3 percent growth, but even his finance minister Mnuchin said last week that this is not being achieved for a long time.

Examining the Strength of the Trump Economy

In addition, the interest rate policy of the central bank is extremely flexible and experienced a remarkable tournure at the start of last year. The president of the Federal Reserve, Jerome Powell, bent an intention in less than two months to raise interest rates to lower them in an intention. That was a corn on the stock market mill, where stock prices had one of the best years since the Lehman crisis in 2019.

And then there is the budget policy itself. According to the new budget, the US budget deficit will amount to 4.6 percent of the gross domestic product. According to the International Monetary Fund, which uses a different definition, it even amounts to 5.5 percent. Such a high deficit is unusual after such a favorable and long economic boom. In its most recent publication, the Congressional Budget Office, the formally impartial mathematician of Congress, reports that the US budget is now on course for an endless series of rising deficits. At least until 2030, when the deficit will be 5.4 percent. The national debt will have risen by that time from 81 percent of GDP to 98 percent. And that is the American definition. According to international budget standards, the US national debt is already 108 percent of GDP. Except just after the Second World War, there was not such a series of budget deficits as those under Trump.

There are two stories in the U.S. economic growth. One in which the US is going through a renaissance, under the unorthodox policy of President Trump. With increasing employment, rising wages and strong stock prices. The Great American Comeback, as Trump called it in his State of the Union. But there is also another story in which the lifespan of the American economy is extended with equine resources. Just like in a horror movie, to dissolve rapidly in the event of death. It is unlikely that these two lectures will meet each other. Just like that, in current American political relationships, it seems to be the case with every other subject. Certainly in the election year 2020.

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The First Phase Agreement Between US and China

The phase one trade deal between the United States and China has not really guaranteed an end to the dispute between the two nations. This had been the words of Myron Brilliant, the American Chamber of Commerce vice-chairman.

As outlined by Brilliant, the trade agreement is anticipated to be agreed upon sealed by signatures. This clearly shows that pressure involving the two camps is easing. Brilliant added that there is more to the agreement that it had been previously envisioned.

As we all know, he has attended briefings on the content of the contract but has not yet seen the text. “In order to build trust and certainty, the implementation of ‘Phase 1’ is very important,” Brilliant said.

He said, but even though the preliminary contract “eases the bleeding,” it did not end the dispute. China carries on to support its own industries, while the United States still imposes import tariffs on Chinese goods worth billions of dollars. Therefore, it is expected that the contract extension will be more difficult.

Several critics have also questioned the implementation of existing contracts. Included in the agreement, China should significantly expand its acquisitions of American agriculture products.

Politics Versus Economics

Politics is the politician who puts together the opinions of the group and makes a rule. The person who does that is called a politician. The economy is a series of activities from making things to be bought and sold to people who need them, to buying and using them.

For example, make vegetables, deliver them to the market, buy vegetables from the market and eat them, or create an amusement park and have customers visit the park and enjoy riding a roller coaster.

Economics and Politics: Basic Definitions

The Role of Politics in Economy

It is the role of politics to make rules for the production of goods, the production of goods, the distribution of goods to people, and the consumption of goods used.

For example, if there are chemicals that should not be used during production, it is the job of a politician to gather the opinions of experts and compile them into rules (laws).

It is the job of politicians to create laws that will not abuse new technologies and other harmful things.

The role of politics, as well as how to deal with various foreign affairs, also responds by incorporating the opinions of various people, and this is called diplomacy.

So, if the politicians are blurred without any decision, the economy, technology, and foreign situation are changing every moment, and the current law becomes useless over time. In a straightforward example, PCs and mobile phones did not exist 50 years ago, but now everyone has it, and there are many crimes using it.

China Still Has Strong Economic Security

Primary financial institutions in China said the Chinese economy still has strong resilience despite mounting pressure. Among the increasing pressure is related to debt swelling and the ongoing trade war with the United States (US).

The PBOC (Peoples Bank of China) added that many Chinese households saved more, the business community was vibrant and there were large financial institutions that functioned well and many policy tools. The PBOC statement was revealed in a report on financial stability.

China: Economy ‘still operating within a reasonable range

“The PBOC will increase the flexibility and coordination of financial supply in serving the real economy while preventing financial risks,” the PBOC said, as quoted by Xinhua, Saturday, November 30, 2019.

On the other hand, the Chinese central bank placed so much stress on the significance of the financial market in preserving China’s real economic climate. At the PBOC meeting chaired by PBOC Governor Yi Gang, conference participants agreed that the financial sector had offered stable support to the real economy in 2019.

However, according to a statement released after the meeting, achieving stable macroeconomic and financial operations still faces a number of challenges, the downward pressure on the economy continues to increase, and social credit still faces pressures of partial contraction.

Yi said ongoing efforts must be made to strengthen counter-cycle adjustments and increase credit support for the real economy. He underlined that the increase in money supply and combined financing must be in line with nominal GDP growth.

“As for M2, the extensive gauge of the money supply which involves cash in circulation as well as all deposits, increased to as much as 8.4% YoY to 194.56 trillion yuan (around USD27.7 trillion at the end of October, PBOC data show.

M2 growth is the same as growth at the end of September. However, 0.4 points higher than the same period last year. Its growth this year is basically in line with nominal GDP growth.

Furthermore, Yi urged that the financial sector can play a full role in the role of the LPR mechanism in reducing real lending rates and continue efforts to increase bank lending capacity by replenishing capital.

“China will continue to implement wise monetary policies and see banks contribute more to financing the real economy,” the PBOC statement said

On a side note, while China’s economic climate is highly affected by its financial sector, the support of its primary institutions is overwhelming. And even if loans to the public is not easily accessible (except for settlement loans like car accident loans), they still manage to keep a strong economic climate.

Factors That Affect Currency Values: Economy, Politics, Government Policies

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Factors Affecting Currency Values

But, similar to most commodities, forces of demand and supply in the market impact the prices of currencies. Sequentially, these forces are affected by numerous factors wherein they sometimes raise demand or supply bringing about a fluctuation in the value of the currency.

Whatever influences money flow in a nation or between nations may affect the values of a currency. Below are three of the major factors that impact the price of a currency:

  • Economy

The currency value of a nation is determined by its economic status. Usually, a budding economy is the basis for a currency that’s stable wherein it is valued greatly compared to others. Whichever factors that influence the progression of the economy, whether in a positive or negative manner also have a bearing on currency prices.

There are numerous economic signs that must be thought through prior to making a decision on a forex trade. These signs exemplify different economic aspects. As the overall condition of the economy influences the value of the currency, these signs are quite beneficial in identifying how the prices of currency will turn out given the present conditions of the economy.

  • Policies Of The Government

The economy of a country is always being assessed by its government and act on it. Policies are formed and carried out by its government to boost existing economic conditions throughout a positive movement and to remedy the disproportion if the condition of the economy isn’t faring well.

Most policies of the economy are under two types, the monetary and fiscal policies. The monetary policies affect the different elements of the financial framework of the country to better or uphold the economy. The country’s central bank executes the policies of the government by means of using numerous investment tactics in the markets.

Fiscal policies sketch out the government’s spending. Part of the fiscal policies is the yearly budget. It identifies the places where government spending will take place. Spending done by the government encourages the industries’ prospects as well as the economy’s segments.

Both fiscal and monetary policies have an effect on currency prices, however the influence of monetary policies is just about instantaneous.

  • Politics

Frequently, politics determines the route taken by an economy. Political turmoil or instability causes many ambiguities regarding the future and suppresses the growth of the economy and the value of the currency. An imminent election or warfare may bring about a careful and guarded investment tactic, lessening the flow of capital into a nation.

Moreover, a change in administration frequently subdues the currency’s price movement in the foreign exchange market. Up until the political outlooks of the new administration or leadership, fiscal and monetary policies as well as viewpoints on global trade clears, the markets don’t demonstrate a clear movement in the value of the currency.

A nation that is regarded as politically unstable won’t be an ideal or preferential partner for trading. This will have an effect on its forex trade and the currency’s value in this market. Conversely, a progressive and broadminded political leader as well as an unwavering leadership put forward amplified investments since the confidence of investors grows sturdier.

What is IPE or the International Political Economy?

The IPE is a part of social science that aims to better understand global issues through the use of theoretical viewpoints and multifaceted tools. Even though it has primarily grown as a field under International Relations, it has now fully developed to stand alone. The University of Puget, there are more than 30 students who have finished a degree in IPE every year. The rising popularity of IPE is a result of the continuous breakdown of limitations that divides the economy, politics, and various other social sciences.

Progressively, the single most stressing issue that researchers and lawmakers are facing are those that can only be understood from various points of view. IPE brings down the walls that limit rational inquiry within the arena of social sciences. Therefore critical questions and issues could be analyzed with no disciplinary reference.

International Political Economy

 

Politics And Cryptocurrency – Will They Ever See Eye To Eye?

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Slow Acceptance and Adoption of Crypto by Politicians and Governments

Many individuals, businesses and industries are quick to adopt cryptocurrencies. Politicians and governments on the other hand appear to be taking the adoption of cryptocurrency slowly. Moreover, when Facebook has publicized its new crypto project, legislators and regulators were quick to respond with apprehensions and criticisms. Additionally, they called for its strict regulation, which would definitely impact the cryptocurrency industry.

Regardless, politics and cryptocurrency must look for some commonalities as cryptocurrencies is to remain. Regulators are more and more expected to integrate crypto assets into the worldwide economy. Furthermore, as the masses become more interested, knowledgeable and involved with digital currencies, central authorities must recognize it as part of human society.

With increasingly more G20 countries prepared to back the global regulation for digital currencies, politics and cryptocurrency might grow to be more tightly and strongly intertwined. Still, a large number of government officials correlate digital currencies with high risks, especially with the announcement of the Libra project.

Who Supports Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies?

Although majority of nations lack a strong and well-defined legislation and regulation for cryptocurrencies, a number of legislators are in favor of crypto and digital assets. For instance, 2020 US presidential candidate under the Democratic party Andrew Yang is enthusiastic about Bitcoin, and actually accepts donations in the form of Bitcoin as well as Ethereum to finance his campaign.

Japan, Sweden, the UK, as well as Switzerland have likewise voiced their support of the adoption of the blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies. Vladimir Putin as well has pointed out cryptocurrency in his addresses, appealing to policymakers to cease in decelerating the development and advancement of new technologies. Yet, these alone couldn’t unite politics and cryptocurrency.

But, when politics and digital currencies come together, it will bring about either adoption and regulation or prohibition. Political figures could advocate the adoption of cryptocurrency; however it is essential they have a clear and working understanding of the concept of decentralization as well as the benefits of crypto and digital assets.

Cryptocurrency has an impact on the traditional system of finance, which is largely controlled and regulated by politics. Therefore, it’s but normal and expected that politicians and governments repudiate the benefits of crypto and blockchain, since they don’t wouldn’t like to lose that control over their economies. It is then necessary to regulate the usage of these digital currencies and assets for the benefit of everyone.

Forgiving Student Debt Could Boost The Economy

Loans are could be very much beneficial to numerous individuals. For example, the American Pride Auto Accident Loans ease the financial load of individuals who have encountered such unexpected incident. However, there are certain loans that do help people along the way but ultimately become a problem.

In the United States, the leading cause of debt is on student loans where 45 million Americans are into about 1.5 trillion US dollars’ worth of debt on student loan. This encumbers the economy of the nation, since money that could’ve been spent on paying for basic needs, establishing businesses, or purchasing homes is rather expended on servicing debt.

Education Reform Plan to Forgive Student Debt

A bold reform plan on education was proposed by Sen. Elizabeth Warren. The proposal intends to forgive student loans of over 30 million Americans that amount to billions of US dollars. The program on debt forgiveness is only a fragment of a bigger program to make more accessible to everyone higher education.

These figures make it simple to comprehend why individuals are so perceptive regarding ideas for higher education to be tuition-free worldwide, but, those plans only does little for individuals who are at present struggling because of student loan debt.

This is probably why Sen. Elizabeth Warren publicized that not only will her plan on education would make colleges accessible to everyone regardless of financial capabilities but also lessen the debt that millions of Americans owe.

Sen. Elizabeth Warren is one of the Democrats presently running for the 2020 US presidential election. The education reform plan that she has announced hits on voluminous of the major democratic discussion points in propositioning that the federal government interpose and create two-year as well as four-year programs for undergraduates free of tuition at public universities. However, Warren’s proposal differs from others as she would as well forgive the debt of numerous Americans who have already graduated.

Warren’s proposal was likewise commended by Robert Reich, Former Secretary of Labor. On his page on Facebook, he mentioned that by disregarding debt on student loan, it would be an immense boost for the economy. Moreover, he also mentioned that it would permit millions of young individuals to invest in things such as purchasing a home or beginning a business.

What Experts Say About The Education Reform Plan

Brandeis University conducted an assessment and projected that, with the education reform plan, it would yield positive economic outcomes. By means of the abrupt deletion of such a great debt load from so numerous individuals, it would steer towards an economy that is consumer-driven, recovered and bettered credit scores, bigger home-purchasing rates and stability in housing, better and greater rates of college completion, as well as bigger formation of businesses.

Warren’s reform plan might end up being a sensible investment. In the US, the cost of a college education has over the years increased dramatically. Numerous proposals were set forward to resolve the issue, however, currently only as single plan exists to absolve the debt of individuals who have completed their higher education already.