Fundamentals of Political Economy - What is the meaning of Wealth?

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Economy and How it works

Economy and How it works

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"Creating more and better jobs is how you build a strong economy." Karen Handel

Investments For Economic Growth

Investments and transactions are important for economic growth. The more investments people make in the country, the better for the economy and for estimated economic growth. If you have desirable and reliable transactions, you can have economic growth even without strong institutions present in a certain country.

Inclusive economic growth is a catalyst for structural transformation

New economic opportunities and possibilities appear when you have sustained economic growth. Growth will always influence evolution and encourage it. It will encourage the emergence of new institutional forms and new social relations.

Society always adapts to the new status quo. The transformation requires the interaction of different capitals with new technical skills for the exploitation and exploration of areas and sectors of interest. Open transactions are the best for economic growth.

Economy: Influence Of Cryptocurrencies

Despite all the open questions, time can no longer be turned back. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin have become a crucial part of the economic and financial sector. The growth of the market leader among cryptocurrencies reached new, unprecedented heights towards the end of 2017. How big is the influence really today?

Bitcoin achieves mass appeal by soaring

Bitcoin is here to stay. Established banks are gradually discovering that the issue can no longer be ignored these days. The factor of cryptocurrencies in the financial world is becoming too important. Nevertheless, it is not clear how Bitcoin and other coins will be in one or even several years. Prices have recently stabilized at a solid level after climbing to record highs at the end of 2017. However, it was that flight in particular that brought the currency into the consciousness of all people and thus created a development towards greater acceptance. This increases the importance not only for the user but also for the banker who is potentially speculating with the currency.

OriginStamp

Impressive totals around the world

In fact, Bitcoin is limited to “only” 21 million pieces, which is due to the programming of the money. This leads to the belief of potential investors in the given system and related investments. Other cryptocurrencies are following suit in a similar way, but mostly to a lesser extent. OriginStamp continuously analyzes the various cryptocurrencies, in addition to guides and course comparisons, primarily referring to the advantage of using it for international payments and the simplicity of the currencies. With OriginStamp, you can verify or create a blockchain-based timestamp.

There is a peer-to-peer network that excludes any involvement of banks from the outset. Not least because of this, the statistics speak in favor of Bitcoin and other coins. A total of around 350,000 transactions per day are carried out worldwide with digital money.

In particular, the USA and China are the international focus. Some people are not sure whether they should really invest or whether they should wait and see. Experts emphasize that basic blockchain technology has proved its worth and there have been no difficulties with it. Last but not least, these assessments already show the increased role of cryptocurrencies in the economic world.

What Defines The Economy?

Economics is the process by which you allocate your limited resources in order to satisfy your unlimited desires. These resources include not only tangible goods and services but also the time and skills of the people who produce them.

The economy is defined by the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The goal of economics is to determine how these resources should be allocated whether through government intervention or market forces.

Purpose of the economy: to provide the necessary resources for society

The purpose of an economy is to provide goods and services to those who need them. In fact, this is the definition of the term “economy” that most economists use. It is a system that allows people to exchange services or products with each other.

An economy works best when there are multiple ways for people to acquire these goods and services.

The Globalization Of Politics

The globalization of politics arises from the consequences of economic and cultural globalization. New problems arise which, due to the limited national possibilities, cannot be solved without global cooperation.

Problem area economy

Due to the expanding world economy, nation-states are increasingly coming into economic competition with each other, because there is competition between locations. This situation can lead to tensions between states. Multinational corporations are also increasingly evading the control of national economic policies.

An increase in global production leads to increased environmental pollution. Since the consequences of this do not stop at national borders, one state alone cannot solve most environmental problems. From this problem situation, a global political structure gradually emerges through the negotiations of the states. However, international negotiations of this kind are traditionally difficult due to differing interests.

How Politicians can Improve the Economy by Trading Overseas?

Today’s economy is challenging for many businesses and industries. For politicians, the best way to help the economy is by actively trading overseas. By opening new markets and increasing exports, politicians can encourage economic growth in their region or country.

At first glance, it may not appear like exporting will help an economy. After all, it means sending something away so that others will give you something in exchange.

Here are three ways that politicians can use international trade to improve the local or national economy;

Decrease Unemployment and Foster Economic Growth

One of the best ways that politicians can improve the economy is by reducing unemployment. There are many different ways to measure unemployment, but the most common is the unemployment rate.

This tells you what percentage of the workforce is currently unemployed.

When there are more people employed, the economy is stronger. Many politicians encourage employers to hire and create more jobs. But one of the best things that can be done for the economy is for the government to create an environment of open trade.

Help Local Businesses

Another way that governments can help local businesses is by reducing taxes. Remember that exports are the number of goods or services that a country sends abroad compared to the number of imports that they receive. 

Taxes on imports or exports are designed to promote certain industries. When there is a trade surplus, it means that the country imports more than they export.

Trade surpluses are usually negative for the economy if they are large enough. It usually indicates that the country is not competitive enough in the world economy. By imposing taxes on imports and subsidies on exports, a government can promote certain industries. But it can also help the economy overall.

Encourage Innovation and Investment

Countries that are open to trade foster innovation and investment. This leads to better products for consumers and more jobs for the people who work in the industry. When businesses and investors have access to more customers through trade, they are more likely to create new products, services, and invest in research and development. When a country has more exports and imports, it is called an open economy.

If politicians want to perform a different type of trading like stocks, that is possible too. They can partner with fidelcrest prop firm for traders and put it on their lists of the other ways to trade.

History Of Political Economy

You can say that political economy emerged with mercantilism in the 16th century. This doctrine posited that countries became richer as they accumulated the greater amount of precious stones.

Political economy in the 17th to 20th century

Towards the end of the 17th century, Physiocracy was born. This, in response to mercantilism, claimed that nature, especially agriculture, was the source of wealth.

Later, in the 18th century, Adam Smith emerged, who focused on human labor as a source of wealth. His general recommendation was that the state let the agents pursue their own economic interests individually.

Then, in the 19th century, came Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who focused on the distribution of economic surpluses. Marx specifically refers to a surplus appropriated by the capitalists and generated by the workers.

Finally, one can say that there is a neoclassical political economy that emerged between the late 19th century and the early 20th century.

El Salvador President Tests Bitcoin As Second Currency

Bitcoin

 

In June, the parliament of El Salvador allowed the use of Bitcoin as an official second currency. That is great news to those earning Bitcoin through trading (you can also learn how to when you visit https://bitcoin360ai.com/de/).

Now the corresponding law has come into force. But many questions remain unanswered. President Bukele seems to want to test his power rather than promote the financial inclusion of his poor country.

In June, the Chamber of Deputies, dominated by a majority of the ruling Nuevas Ideas party, quickly waved through the law to introduce Bitcoin as the official second currency for El Salvador. The law came into force at the beginning of September. It is a very short legal text with only 17 articles. However, the brevity and the unclear or not formulated procedural rules carry a great risk in such sensitive decisions.

President Nayib Bukele announced his decision to introduce Bitcoin during a conference in the US. The conference participants were experts and lovers of technology and cryptocurrencies. At the same time, El Salvador is one of the poorest countries in Latin America.

In his own country, which is about the size of Hesse, Bukele limits his appearances on the subject of Bitcoin to the medium Twitter, which he prefers. So far, there has been no press conference in which the Salvadoran population has been told how to imagine how to deal with Bitcoin.

President Bukele praises the installation of around 200 Bitcoin ATMs on social media almost as a panacea. How the setting of the exchange rate between Bitcoin and the official national currency US dollar is to work, the law does not specify. It is also concealed that when exchanging Bitcoin into US dollars, 5% fees are charged on the transaction.

Opportunities for financial inclusion

Populist Bukele justifies his decision with the opportunities of financial inclusion and the associated freedom that many people will have if they use Bitcoin to enter the formal economy. Bitcoins also have advantages for withdrawing home transfers from the USA, which account for 20% of GDP. For wallet-to-wallet transactions, the withdrawal in El Salvador would be free of charge, but the sender must also have Bitcoin. The government is trying to make the project palatable to citizens by giving everyone $30 in Bitcoin. To a certain extent, Bukele also seems to have the intention of detaching his country from the controls of the international financial system with the introduction of Bitcoin.

In the future, taxes should be able to be paid with Bitcoins, and every company and every business is obliged by law to accept Bitcoins as a means of payment. An app should be used for this. How this works, however, is still unclear. Training and further education opportunities for entrepreneurs or banks have so far been lacking, but they would be urgently needed. Stakeholders are not necessarily critical of the project but are unsettled by the lack of information and the legal basis.

 

ALSO READ: The Importance of Retail and Wholesale for Growth in a Country

 

It is a very high-risk experiment

Although the charismatic president, in the eyes of many, despite his authoritarian traits, remains certain of the approval of most Salvadorans, the risks of the latest decision seem to clearly outweigh the opportunities.

Bitcoin has a very volatile value. In order to pay taxes or fines, for example, the law would have to set the applicable exchange rate of US dollars in Bitcoin. For loans in Bitcoin, this volatility is also an extreme problem. Whether the established trust fund of 150 million US dollars will be able to cushion the volatility of Bitcoin remains open.

Transactions with Bitcoins are registered, but it is difficult to understand who made them from which device. This lack of transparency provides an optimal breeding ground for money laundering and the establishment of a tax haven. This is also the biggest concern of international institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the rating agencies Fitch Ratings and Moody’s. Consequently, it remains to be seen what decision the IMF will make regarding the $1.3 million loan to El Salvador currently under negotiation. It is a very high-risk experiment.

A government test run

The actual motives for Bukele’s decision are assumed to be a possible de-dollarization. That would intensify the confrontation with the US. When in May this year the impeachment of all judges of the Supreme Court and the Attorney General became known as the first decision of the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, which was characterized by a majority of the ruling party, the US called for the preservation of the separation of powers as the basis of a stable democracy.

Bitcoin seems to be a test run of the government to observe how quickly such unclear decisions are accepted by the population. That doesn’t bode well. It is clear that the authoritarian traits of the president, with support in parliament, are becoming increasingly apparent. Obvious resistance did not flare up until September 15. On this day, Central America celebrates two hundred years of its independence. But the protesters’ motives are diffuse, with some protesting the introduction of Bitcoin and the Supreme Court’s unconstitutional decision to approve the president’s direct re-election. Others protested against planned constitutional reforms and the restriction of freedom of the press and freedom of expression, while others protested against the sluggish reactivation of the economy. Protesters pretend that they have not taken to the streets out of fear. Whether these protests will continue or intensify remains to be seen.

Role model for other Central American countries?

Not only since the introduction of Bitcoin in El Salvador, other Central American countries have also become aware of the potential of digital currencies. In Honduras, the central bank is already researching the introduction of digital central bank money. Central banks around the world are working on developing a digital form of their respective currencies as well as regulating cryptocurrencies. In Panama, a draft law was presented at the beginning of September, which, however, only provides for the regulation of cryptocurrencies as an alternative means of payment and does not make adoption mandatory. Although the introduction of Bitcoin could further advance the integration of Central America, especially in the commercial and financial sectors, transparency and a clear legal framework must be guaranteed for such a system to work. Digital currencies offer enormous potential for people without access to the banking system. However, it is important to differentiate between the different forms of digital currencies and their functions: While Bitcoin is less suitable as a means of payment due to its high volatility, so-called stablecoins, a version of cryptocurrencies whose value is pegged to that of reserve currencies such as the US dollar, have high stability. Many users use Bitcoin more as a form of investment than as a medium of exchange. Thus, it seems highly problematic when transactions are obliged to accept a volatile cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. Even supporters of a currency competition should therefore treat El Salvador’s decision with caution.

Politics & Business Have Different Tasks

Politics shapes your social life. It sets the framework for what you do and don’t do, first and foremost in economic matters.

The market economy has a decisive advantage over all other economic systems. In principle, it allows everyone to gain an advantage from the given framework conditions.

This individual and social freedom is the motor for innovation, growth and increasing prosperity if the framework conditions allow it.

Politics and business have two very different tasks in the social system

This means that politics and business, which of course also includes the banks, have two very different tasks in our social system. Politics sets the framework within which you can move. Individual freedom allows each individual to make the best of it for themselves. Ultimately, they can also do it for the society in and for which they work.

Of course, this freedom is not unlimited. Laws and regulations restrict these freedoms, as do ethical and moral norms. In addition, what the citizens earn is redistributed through taxes and levies, for example according to social aspects.

The Importance of Retail and Wholesale for Growth in a Country

Buying goods using a credit card

Retail is the process of selling goods to end consumers. Retailers are companies that sell products to the public. Wholesale, on the other hand, is a process of buying goods in large quantities and selling them in smaller quantities to retailers or other businesses. Retailers buy products from wholesalers and then sell these products to consumers at a higher price. This business model is called retailing. There are many retail stores that operate in this manner, such as Walmart or Target.

Example: A cabinet maker markets wholesale kitchen cabinets, and retailers purchase these items at wholesale price and sell them to consumers at a mark-up depending on the supply and demand.

Government support for the retail and wholesale industry

The United States government’s policy on the retail and wholesale industry is underdeveloped. It has allowed the market to be unpredictable, resulting in a lack of regulation in this important sector. As a result, companies have gone bankrupt or closed down due to extreme competition within the industry. This has caused an increase in unemployment rates for those who work for these businesses that have shut down.

The government can provide several programs to help the retail and wholesale industry.

  • Tax relief. Perhaps the most important is a program that provides tax relief for small businesses. This would give an incentive for businesses to operate in the United States and possibly hire more employees.
  • Grants and loans. Government funds to support the retail and wholesale industry. The retail and wholesale industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. The government is making funds available to support these entrepreneurs and small businesses, offering grants and loans with low or no interest rates.

Role of Retail and Wholesale in a Country’s Economy

Retailers and wholesalers are the backbones of any economy. They provide jobs to people, they provide products to consumers, they generate revenue for governments and they also have a multiplier effect on the economy. The price of a product is decided in the marketplace, not by manufacturers. The country’s economy can grow as long as there is enough demand for goods and people are willing to purchase them.

As such, it is important that these two industries are supported by governments in order to make sure that the country’s economy is stable. Retailers and wholesalers provide jobs for people as well as products to consumers.

Read also: Reasons Why Economic Growth Is Needed

Retail. Retail is defined as an establishment that sells products to consumers in a market. It is a service for consumers and it primarily exists to provide goods and services at lower prices, in contrast with wholesale. There are three main types of retail: proprietorship, partnership, and corporate. A worker who works at a retail store or location is called a salesperson.

Retail industry. The term “retail industry” refers to the sale of products or services to consumers, not just retailers and salespeople. It is often used for businesses that sell a range of goods or services as opposed to a specific niche market. The total retail industry in the U.S. is estimated at $2 trillion with an annual growth rate of 3.2% and a median household income of $62,900 in 2010.

Retail ombudsman. A retail ombudsman is an organization that operates as a third-party mediator between consumers and retailers or other service providers. They are typically free to consumers who have experienced issues with the company they are filing complaints against, including refunds on purchases, reimbursement of purchases, and other things related to the dispute.

Retailer. The term “retailer” refers to a store that primarily sells items that are consumable and not durable or require maintenance. Essentially, it is a shop that sells goods in exchange for money.

Conclusion: Role of Retail and Wholesale in Addressing Economic Challenges

The retail and wholesale industry is one of the most important economic contributors in the world. It has a significant impact on the economy and society, as it provides employment for millions of people worldwide and has a substantial impact on social welfare. This being said, it is just right for the government to support these business sectors to continuously provide balance to the economy.

Why Is Economy Important To Government?

The economy plays an important role in your daily life. Studying economics allows you to understand past, current and future models. You can apply them to individuals, businesses, societies, and governments, businesses.

Why is the economy important in society?

Economics provides a framework for understanding the actions and decisions of businesses, individuals, and governments. In addition, it offers a method to understand the relations in a market-driven society. Thus, it provides a way to analyze government guidelines that affect the jobs, families, and lives of citizens.

Government & Its Role In Economic Growth

Government plays an important part in the regional economy.

Why government plays a part in economic development

Social impacts. Development can have long-term optimistic effects on the economic well-being of people and places, especially low-skilled, less-educated individuals.

Spillovers. The marketplace will produce too much if private sector sellers and buyers oversee negative spillovers like pollution. They will produce too little when they oversee positive spillovers.

Existing but under-utilized capacity. If private resources or public infrastructure are left idle, a society can miss out on the chance for existing investments’ economic potential.

Political pressure. Decline or lack of progress in the economy prompts demands from voters for economic development action whether good or bad.

Reasons Why Economic Growth Is Needed

In many political agreements, economic growth is seen as the central solution to social, economic and also certain ecological problems. Growth is considered to be suitable for curbing unwanted side effects of a market economy.

Growth increases prosperity

Real GDP growth means that the value of a country’s production of goods and services increases. Growth enables people to better meet their material needs. Material goods are indispensable for basic needs such as food, and housing and are crucial for people’s physiological well-being. Building on the assumption that people increase their utility by increasing their consumption, increasing disposable income or GDP per capita is an attractive goal for mainstream economists. The basic idea is that the higher the GDP, the better off the inhabitants of a country are, at least as far as economic prosperity is concerned.

business insurance brokers perth

Growth in increases employment and reduces unemployment

Economic growth is crucial for employment and unemployment. This economic principle is also strongly represented in politics. The link between growth and employment can be described in terms of economic factors. Employment increases when economic growth is higher than the increase in labour productivity. Labour productivity increases when the same output can be achieved with fewer hours worked. Unemployment is less affected by economic growth than employment. Labour market policy and demographic influences play a major role here.

Growth increases productivity and creates a head start in system competition

Economic growth is an important motor for technical progress. It is often argued that economic growth leads to higher productivity due to increasing returns to scale.

Specializing in the production of export goods, for example, can increase both productivity and skill levels in the export sector. This can result in resources flowing from less efficient sectors to the export sector. As a result, prices fall, goods become more competitive and exports increase. Thus, productivity increases can also lead to economic growth.

Growth in the economy and business insurance is perceived as progress

For some, economic growth is synonymous with progress. The reason is that gross domestic product is used as an indicator of progress. Success in the economy means that businesses can contact business insurance brokers perth regarding their company’s insurance easily.

Buying goods using a credit card

Dealing With Credit Card Companies Reducing Credit Limit During COVID-19

Due to the corona crisis, there have been many challenges in the lives of common people. One of the biggest crises in this is related to cash.

Buying goods using a credit card

 

Data on withdrawals from provident fund pf funds shows that people are struggling with a lack of money. However, all efforts have been made by the reserve bank to overcome this crisis., For example, the process of taking loans has been simplified by cutting interest rates. Similarly, people who pay the monthly installment of the loan have been given the option of 3 months moratorium. Amidst all this, banks have started reducing the credit card limit of customers, although some banks launched promos that compensate for this like the HDFC Smartbuy offer. Some of the country’s private banks have reduced the credit card limit of customers of different categories by up to 80 percent.

What do the experts say?

Adil Shetty, CEO of bankbazaar.com, said this is not the first time this is happening. Credit card limits have been reduced before. But due to the increase in the covid-19 crisis, this time the banks are looking more alert. He said that banks keep increasing or decreasing the credit card limit based on the earnings, cibil score, and payment history of the customers. But in the current situation, the reduction of the limit has shocked the customers.

What’s the reason?

According to the report, for customers who are taking advantage of a three-month moratorium from payment on loans, the credit card limit for customers is being reduced. Banks believe that such customers will be short of money. In this situation, the customer will use the credit card to meet the financial needs and the payment will be delayed. Similarly, the limit for customers using fewer credit cards is also being cut.

 

ALSO READ: Learning From A Financial Crisis 10 Years Ago

 

What should you do?

According to expert Adil Shetty, if you have to maintain the limit of the credit card, then pay on time along with spending the card money. If you have been paying on time for a few months with more than 50 percent of the amount spent, then there will never be a crisis on your credit limit. This will also keep your cibil score correct.

Adil Shetty said that the cibil score should be checked from time to time. If you feel a mistake, check the reasons. Adil Shetty advises you to try to pay the credit card dues as much as possible. By doing this, the bank may increase the limit of your credit card.

A credit card is also exempted.

Let us know that at the behest of the central reserve bank, banks have been given a 3-month moratorium on credit card payments in addition to loans. This means that if you do not pay for a credit card for 3 months, there will be no pressure from the banks and there will be no impact on the cibil score.

Advantages or disadvantages of not making payments

Credit cardholders should still make the payment on time, this will save them a lot. Because if the customer does not pay the card for three months, then in the fourth month, the amount of the last three months, as well as the interest, will have to be paid. The bank charges an interest rate on credit cards arbitrarily, which can be up to 40 percent. In such a situation the customer will be caught in the trap of interest. The good and better option is to deposit the credit card bill only on time.

 

Politics: Rules For Economic Life

Government has rules according to which its economy works. This is the economic order. It determines which laws they must base economic activities on. This can be an economic order that is controlled from a central point. You call this central government economy. It is very different in a market economy. The principle of supply and demand applies here.

Enough for everyone

The goal of all economic systems is to ensure that all people in a country have enough to live on and as good a living as possible.

Social market economy

The economic order that applies in many democratic countries is the market economy. In some areas, the state intervenes in economic activity in order to prevent social injustice.

National Economy And Politics

All private households, small and large companies and enterprises as well as institutions of a state together form the national economy. Put simply, one can say that everyone who produces, distributes and consumes goods belongs to the national economy.

Important for the economy

Two important characteristics of an economy are the common currency and a common economic system. The government’s economic policy, the education of the population, the state of the art, the economic performance of the people, the climate and natural resources such as coal, iron ore and oil deposits play a major role in the national economy. The geographical location of a country is also important. For example, if there are large ports by the sea, you can easily transport goods around the world. All of these things work together to ultimately determine how well an economy performs.

3 Trends in the Economy that Affect Human Resources

Human Resources

 

Research and decades of experience have taught us that the economy impacts workforce strategies over almost anything. I’m convinced this year won’t be an exception. I’ll outline several important economic trends that every HR leader should note in this article.

1. While the GDP is Rising, Productivity Isn’t

Productivity (output per hour worked) is lagging even though employees around the world are working more hours. I feel this is often a result of several factors.

First, while robotics is now often employed in manufacturing, digital tools in most roles haven’t necessarily made work easier. For example, 27 percent of respondents to a 2018 LinkedIn survey said they spend a whole day per week coping with emails in a roundabout way relevant to their jobs. And also the average company now has seven different systems for communications. Most employees are operating in an exceedingly digital overload.

Now, 14 million workers spend an hour or more in daily commutes—another productivity killer, as we also know that commute times are inching up over past years.

Those in Human Resources must invest in work-at-home solutions, adopt flexible work schedules where possible, simplify the IT infrastructure (and HR tools) and do a far better job of employee communications.

2. Wages are Relatively Stagnant

After factoring in inflation, U.S. wages have barely budged within the last 40 years, and for those within the bottom 90 percent, wages are falling behind. One that has benefited from digital technology and a bigger one that has not: we essentially have two workforces.

There are many left behind despite software engineers and designers are now in high demand.

 

ALSO READ: 21 Best of All Time Politically Themed TV Series

 

The 62 percent of U.S. citizens who failed to attend college are seeing twice the percentage and fewer than half the wages of those who did. Even higher-paid college grads are falling behind. Deloitte research has found that two-thirds of millennials don’t believe their standard of the instrument to be as high as that of their parents; 15 percent of millennials have student debt of $15,000 or more.

“Are we paying people enough?,” HR leaders must ask themselves. In today’s economy, where the foremost valuable jobs are supported by creativity, services, and collaboration, paying people well is an investment, not an expense. This year, rethinking their entire compensation strategies is what I encourage all HR leaders with. As your company makes more cash, it’s important for you to encourage business and finance leaders to share the wealth with employees.

3. Modern Jobs Demand New Skills

Employees who are digitally savvy, who can communicate effectively verbally and in writing, and who can add teams and across functional areas are what the jobs in virtually every industry are now requiring. LinkedIn’s latest study of skills in the city, town with the most important skills gaps, found that speech was the foremost in-demand skill.

This is why firms are finally getting out of the way and putting learning into the hands of employees and the L&D market is exploding this year (spending on L&D technology is up 10 percent). Research shows that employees who spend longer learning are more productive, happy, engaged, and perform better than their peers.

Human resources must aggressively support employee career development, technical-skills.

Development and overall on-the-job learning. U.S. companies only spend about $1,200 per employee p.a. on training, yet they spend three to 5 times this amount just to rent a brand new employee. Employers can clearly afford to spend more on employee development, and that we should.

To mitigate the impact of those economic trends, human resources features a tremendous amount of responsibility, power, and agency. Businesses have a responsibility to try and do the correct thing for society, likewise as their customers and stakeholders. You, as an HR leader, have lots more power than you’ll think.

 

Role Of Government In The Economy

Government involvement in the economy is to aid in correcting market failures. They need to correct situations where private sectors cannot get the most out of the value they could generate for society. This includes the provision of public goods. In addition, it includes the internalization of externalities and the imposition of competition. That being said, many companies accepted a wider government involvement in a capitalist economy.

Government activities have a strong effect on the US economy in several areas.

Promoting growth and stabilization

Perhaps most essentially, the government is guiding the overall speed of economic activity. They are trying to keep steady growth, high employment levels and price stability. By managing the money supply and controlling the use of credit, it can slow down or accelerate the growth rate of the economy. In the process, it affects the level of prices and employment.

What To Learn In Politics And Economics

Politics, the economy and society are connected. Their interdependence is so complex that you cannot infer them from your everyday experiences alone.

In the subject of politics and economics, you will get to know methods with which you can research information and present your results. You acquire and train skills for democratic action.

The lessons are accordingly competency-oriented

Expertise: You develop knowledge, learn to arrange and can better understand political, economic and social structures.

Methodological skills: You will acquire subject-specific methods and models or theories. With these instruments, you can develop knowledge independently.

Judgment skills: You grapple with problems, assess possible solutions or develop them yourself. You will also get to know various assessment criteria.

Hertsmere’s Forthcoming Real Estate Developments Making Borehamwood the Best Place to Live In

Borehamwood has been in the radar of Britons looking for a place where they could purchase a home they can call their own now that they’re mortgage-ready. Apparently, the announcement made by the Hertsmere Borough Council last September  has heightened their interest in Borehamwood. The Council revealed that they have already drafted a regulatory policy to support the 850-home community that The Wrotham Park Estate intends to build in Borehamwood.

According to the proposal that Bidwells and Woolf Bond Planning submitted to the Council in behalf of The Wrotham Park Estate, the plan is to develop a new local community that comes complete with a country park, a village centre,and most important of all, provisions for the future constructions of an on-site college that will operate in conjunction with the Elstree Screen Arts Academy

House hunters who are looking to buy their own home but on a limited budget are now all eyes and ears about the The Wrotham local community development project after learning that of the 850 housing provisions, about 350 units will be provided as low-cost homes.

Ever since home-buying trended in the UK due to the Stamp Duty Holiday promulgated by the government early this year, Borehamwood Estate Agents have had their hans full in helping buyers find their dream home in Borehamwood. Although the Stamp Duty Holiday ended last September 30, 2021, many apartment and public housing dwellers have decided to pursue plans of buying a home, preferably outside but near the Greater London Area while mortgage rates are still low.

Borehamwood became the likeliest place for many as it’s takes only 25 minutes or so to reach London by train. Moreover, earlier news about other real estate development and construction projects indicate a promising economic outlook in the borough.

Hertsmere’s Economic Outlook Makes Borehamwood the Best Place in which to Buy a Private Home

Other real estate development projects in the offing in Borehamwood includes the construction of a sizeable studio complex in the borough called Hertswood Studios . After all, Borehamwood and its twin-borough Elsetree have gained popularity as The Home of Film and Television,” for being the favorite on-site locations of film and TV show studios.

The future Hertswood Studios complex gives a promise of providing new jobs estimated to contribute at least £1billion to Hertsmereshire’s local economy. The proposed studio complex includes the construction of a hotel to accommodate arriving film stars and film crew members, as well as tourists who enjoy becoming part of the live audience during taping of TV shows.

The development schemes for both the residential and commercial sectors are likely to produce a highly sustainable economic growth in Hertsmere developments that incorporate plans to integrate energy-efficient designs, renewable power sources, and high quality landscaping.

Role of Political Economy

Political economy has become progressively prominent in both political science and economics over the past 50 years.

Knowing the roles of political economy

It makes use of the tools of economics in order to study politics.
It evaluates how the economy can have an impact on politics. Macroeconomic trends can ruin or boost the chances of an incumbent.
It examines how political forces have an influence on the economy. Interest groups and voters have a powerful influence on almost every possible economic standard. Political economists struggle to classify how political organizations affect their influence on policy.

How Does Immigration Impact the Economy?

North America has more immigrants than any other countries around the globe. Immigrants is defined as anyone living in a country other than where they were born. Nearly 60 million immigrants live in the United States alone. Some of which came from places like Mexico over into the United States. It’s at the forefront of national debates and is driving political discourse. But what do we know about immigration’s effect on the actual economy?
The United States is often referred to as a “Nation of Immigrants.” With around 60 million immigrants, that’s about equal to the entire populations of Australia, Ecuador and Switzerland combined. Saudi Arabia, Germany and Russia follow the US; with about 12 million immigrants each. The US-Mexico border has become a focal point in the migration debate. Immigrants continue to make up a larger portion of US Society. This has increased since the 1970’s when foreign born residents made up less than 5% of the population.


What have economists known about the impact of migration? One report found that an extra one percent increase in a country’s migrant population adds on an extra 2% GDP per capita in the long term. This boost happens in two ways:
• It impacts productivity per worker because migrant skills often complement the existing population’s.
• It increases the percentage of working-age people in a country because migrants tend to fall within this age bracket. That helps pay for things like Social Security.
The IMF recently advised advanced economies like Japan, The U.S and U.K to open up their borders to avoid being overwhelmed by their aging populations.

The Relationship Between Politics and the Economy

Politics and Economics are always connected. It’s wrong for economists to treat the political as something outside the realm of economics. Many ask the question; how does the political volatility affect the global economy?

Economics and demographics drive politics, not the other way around. Political outcomes like elections, can have an effect on the economy in the short run. The political outcome that we receive worldwide are being driven by what’s happening economically and demographically. We are living in a world where growth appears to be stalled out. This is giving people the sense that maybe globalization can’t deliver. But not all believe this is true. They believe that we are living in a transition where different economies in the world transitions. We are also living in a world where the presence of the “Super dollar” has disrupted global trading patterns. This big increase in the US Dollar has been highly disruptive to global trading patterns. Another demographic factor that is driving politics worldwide is the emergence of millennial as a force in the economy at exactly the same time when the economic power of  baby boomers is beginning to subside. This explains that we are living in this world where we have a lot of population that is very young who are being balanced a population that tends to be over 55 who are living in the most conservative years of their lives. Where their concerns are different than those millennials who are living liberally. So we are living in a world where are demographics are giving us this sense that we are extremely divided and demographically, we are.

The Government and The Economy

Socialism, Capitalism, Communism, Marxism, Feminism and all the ism you can think of can be regarding philosophy, politics, ways to organize the government, economy etc. It just shows that people to not usually agree on the best ways to do things. In the past 10 years or more people had been organizing themselves. Nowadays we do not only look over our families, we no longer live in towns with a hundred people or less, most people live in countries with millions of people. For some reason not all of this countries have agreed on the best “ism” or the best ways to organize themselves nor the best philosophy to follow. Two of the most influential system at the moment are communism and  capitalism. Communism controls mostly all of a countries economy and affairs. A good example of a Communist country is the People’s Republic of China. Between 1911-1949, China had two major revolutions. And this time, china was also invaded by Japan. Until 1949, more capitalist regime fled to Taiwan leaving just the communist party in mainland China. Moa Tse Tong, who was the head of the communist party changed the Chinese law getting rid of a lot of the Chinese cultural heritage. He also radically change the economy, educational system and social system. The communist system caused a lot of human rights violation during this period. But on 1976, when Moa Tse Tong died and stop being chairman of the communist party, the new leaders made some reforms to some of the more radical programs. China is not now purely communist unlike before. This country has open itself to international trade and even allows different private companies to set up their businesses in China. We can say that Communism has helped China experience the biggest economic growth  than any other country.

Another interesting fact is about Socialism. We can set Portugal as a good example on this. It has mentioned Socialism in its constitution but note that Portugal is not that extreme compared to other Socialist countries. It’s still a multi party democracy and still practices free market trade. Since Portugal moved towards Socialism, the Government has taken over more businesses because of the process called Nationalization. They have increased benefits and Government services. This has been effective in Poland and the people have seen an excellent economic improvement. But of course, this does not mean that they are free from critics. Although it has improve in some certain areas, Socialism in Poland has taken a toll on individual freedom. I the Government control gets more involved in activities, people have to comply and it limits them to make their own choices.

What is the role of the Government in Economics?

The Government has a limited but important role in the market economy. It has four major roles in the economy:

  1. Providing the Legal Structure. The Government sets up the system and procedures that the public should follow.
  • Government is in charge to provide the legal status of a business.
  • The registry of the articles of a corporation is also legalized by the government.
  • Protecting property rights.
  • Legalization of contracts
  • The Government provides a medium of exchange
  • The Government guarantees product quality.

  1. Maintaining Competition. Competition is essential to innovation and choice. The Government steps in to correct monopolism.
  2. Redistributing Income.
  • Transfer Payments
  • Market Intervention
  • Taxation
  1. Reallocating Resources.

Political Risks and Its Impact on the Economy

We should be concern and aware of the different political risks. On how it impacts different economics sectors such as growth, trade, the value of currency, investment, incomes and many more.
Here is why common people should be knowledgeable about these risks. Political risks can lead to the following:

1. Lower Investment. It may result to slower economic growth that may lead to higher unemployment. An example of this is when a new election has taken place and the elected president would impose higher taxes on certain goods and services.
2. These risks may lead to weak exchange rate and equity market. Political unrest or strikes usually affects how the currency plays in the market.
3. Political risk in other nation or country can negatively impact your economy.
4. Political risks can lead to the fall of the stock market and increase interest rates.

A New Political Season

The Year 2021 in America sees another political season setting in. The new governance under the rule of Joe Biden and Kamala Harris is bringing more hope for the nation. Their strategy, governance and political exercise can impact the economy. In turn, the economic cycle will strongly depend on them. The American people are hoping for a better year despite the impact of the pandemic. With the new administration they are faced with many issues and problems. The new administration is steadily coming up with strategic plans to meet these problems and generate a solution. They want to prove to its citizen that America will again be a great nation regardless of different economic conditions. During the political noise of the election season, Americans will have to work hand in hand with the new Government. They should continue to work and build back the economy.

Here’s what the U.S. economy may look like under a Joe Biden presidency

Economies Are Hoping For A Comeback

Not too long ago the buoyant economic growth made it a place to go for good returns on investments. But since this pandemic started, and especially when the lock-downs in many countries have taken effect, many countries have fallen far behind in terms of return on equity. This is a figure that represents the net income of a company as a percentage of the value of shares issued in it. The different government and their politics are doing their best to cope up with this ordeal. Many nations are hoping that this will soon overturn. They are praying that this pandemic will be over. With the introduction of the new vaccine for COVID 19, they are hoping that the economy will recover. Many successful businesses and company’s has gone through these stages to survive the pandemic:

  • Restructuring the company
  • Downsizing
  • Debt-reduction
  • Selling non-core businesses and
  • Improving transparency

There is a long way to go for economies to fully recover. We are just hoping that it will be soon.

Politics Has a Huge Role on The Economy of a Country

Politics has a huge role on the economy of a country. During elections a candidate has his platforms to make the economy flourish. If this candidate is elected and put into power, he should implement all his promises when he was campaigning. If these promises cannot be fulfilled this may have a great impact on the nation’s economy and standing. Leaders of a country should make sure to run the nation towards greatness. It is vital that citizens should put into power a leader who is deserving and great. We all know that politics decide the fate of every economy. If the public is educated and wise the leader they will elect will be very effective thus the nation will surely follow a path to progress. If the public votes with analyzing and thinking, there is no doubt that the politician who has no political will will be its leader and will surely harm the economy. During elections politicians struggle for power. This power can make the elected leader takes over how the nation grows. Hence we can say that politics indeed will shape the economy of a country.

The Impact of Corona Virus to The Economy

Coronavirus is real! The virus has taken a toll on many economies around the world. Without a vaccine, cases continuously spike in number. Many nations have experienced another wave of infections when they tried opening their economy.

Governments around the world implement strict measures to halt the spread risking the economy. Measures such as social distancing, lockdowns, and quarantines have been very common in many countries around the world. These measures had a great impact on many economies. It had slowed down many businesses. Because of this, we have begun experiencing a global recession. Up to this date when the first breakout of Corona Virus many economies and governments are struggling to survive and fight this worldwide problem. Still many are uncertain about this global crisis. However, despite these economies and Governments around the world are working hard to come back in order to return to normal.

For many nations, the impacts of the Corona Virus on the economy are still real. Finding solutions on how to recover is still uncertain and blurred. It has caught many policymakers, politicians, and business owners off guard.

 

 

Factors That Affect Currency Values: Economy, Politics, Government Policies

Forex signals are suggestions for going into a trade on a pair of currency, typically at a certain value and time. These signals are either produced manually by an analyst or automatically by a Forex robot provided to a forex signal service subscriber.

Factors Affecting Currency Values

But, similar to most commodities, forces of demand and supply in the market impact the prices of currencies. Sequentially, these forces are affected by numerous factors wherein they sometimes raise demand or supply bringing about a fluctuation in the value of the currency.

Whatever influences money flow in a nation or between nations may affect the values of a currency. Below are three of the major factors that impact the price of a currency:

  • Economy

The currency value of a nation is determined by its economic status. Usually, a budding economy is the basis for a currency that’s stable wherein it is valued greatly compared to others. Whichever factors that influence the progression of the economy, whether in a positive or negative manner also have a bearing on currency prices.

There are numerous economic signs that must be thought through prior to making a decision on a forex trade. These signs exemplify different economic aspects. As the overall condition of the economy influences the value of the currency, these signs are quite beneficial in identifying how the prices of currency will turn out given the present conditions of the economy.

  • Policies Of The Government

The economy of a country is always being assessed by its government and act on it. Policies are formed and carried out by its government to boost existing economic conditions throughout a positive movement and to remedy the disproportion if the condition of the economy isn’t faring well.

Most policies of the economy are under two types, the monetary and fiscal policies. The monetary policies affect the different elements of the financial framework of the country to better or uphold the economy. The country’s central bank executes the policies of the government by means of using numerous investment tactics in the markets.

Fiscal policies sketch out the government’s spending. Part of the fiscal policies is the yearly budget. It identifies the places where government spending will take place. Spending done by the government encourages the industries’ prospects as well as the economy’s segments.

Both fiscal and monetary policies have an effect on currency prices, however the influence of monetary policies is just about instantaneous.

  • Politics

Frequently, politics determines the route taken by an economy. Political turmoil or instability causes many ambiguities regarding the future and suppresses the growth of the economy and the value of the currency. An imminent election or warfare may bring about a careful and guarded investment tactic, lessening the flow of capital into a nation.

Moreover, a change in administration frequently subdues the currency’s price movement in the foreign exchange market. Up until the political outlooks of the new administration or leadership, fiscal and monetary policies as well as viewpoints on global trade clears, the markets don’t demonstrate a clear movement in the value of the currency.

A nation that is regarded as politically unstable won’t be an ideal or preferential partner for trading. This will have an effect on its forex trade and the currency’s value in this market. Conversely, a progressive and broadminded political leader as well as an unwavering leadership put forward amplified investments since the confidence of investors grows sturdier.

The Reasons Why Government is Overspending

Consumer, Trapped, Consumption, Concept, Shopping Nowadays, people can easily buy anything they want even even if it is not yet payday. If the item is too expensive they can even choose to pay it through installment. These are all  possible because of credit. The problem is that people who are unable to live within their means usually get themselves in trouble. And the worst thing that may happen is that they will live in debt. Hence, wholesale tradelines source is on top of the most search terms nowadays.  The same goes for governments. It is also possible for them to overspend if they failed to budget properly.

If a person spends more than he can afford,  then he will most likely find himself in trouble sooner or later. If you continue doing this, your debt gets bigger and bigger and the portion of your outgo that is interest gets larger and larger and eventually you get to the point where you just can’t pay your bills. And if you can’t pay your electric bill they cut off the electricity.

The situation with the government is also similar with the above mentioned case. If they fail to control how it is being spend, the people who are paying for their taxes may start to rally.

What can the government do in times when the outgo is much greater that the income?

  1. Increase Taxes-  It can increase income by raising taxes. But it is limited in how much it can raise taxes. It can only raise them so far. If it raises them too much it will kill incentive and have a counter-productive effect. Capital will flee the country, go elsewhere
  2. Borrow Money– the government can borrow money to make up the difference between its outgo and income. It borrows money by issuing government bonds. People buy government bonds and thus lend money to the government. But, just as with an individual, if it borrows money, it has to pay interest on that money.
  3. Print Money– government has the authority to print money. Just print a whole lot of unbacked money. Then it can pay its bills with that new money, make up the difference between outgo and income with that. You can get away with this for a while but it always brings disaster if you constantly do it. Many governments have tried it and it always ends in hyperinflation with the money becoming worthless (as happened in Germany after World War I with the German mark).

Florida’s SR 22, F44 and SR 21 – What Differences Do These Requirements Make

Not all motorists in the US are familiar with SR-22, a DMV legal requirement, which a car insurance provider must submit to the agency on behalf of a client. A SR-22 is typically connected to license reinstatement proceedings, serving as attestation that an errant driver has a new and adequate car insurance coverage. In Florida, the state DMV or FLHSMV, may lift a driver license suspension but will require more than just a SR 22.

The Significance of SR 22 is Not All Encompassing

Have awareness that the submission of a SR 22 is significant and is not enough as basis for the approval of a driver license reinstatement. The significance of SR 22 is not comprehensive and not all-encompassing, especially if the events surrounding the suspension had resulted in dire consequences.

First off, if the driver has been criminally charged and sent to prison, he or she must first pay the penalties ordered by the court, and complete the jail time handed down by the judge as punishment. After which, the driver must also complete the probation period under the supervision of a parole officer.

In some cases, an errant driver may be charged for a mere misdemeanor. Request for the lifting of license follows only after the driver has completed the number of hours required for a court-ordered community work. Here, the low cost of the SR 22 is not connected to a conviction.

A Closer Look at the FDHSMV Requirements for Driver License Reinstatement

Like other states, the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles (FLHSMV), may reinstate a driver license after all penalties have been paid and jail time and probationary period have been served and completed. The submission of an FR 44 will be required if the traffic offender was charged or incarcerated for DUI or Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol or prohibited substance.

The FR 44 is a document attesting to the financial capability of the jailed driver to actually pay for and keep an SR 22 car insurance policy current and active. In Florida, the insurance company from whom the convicted driver purchased a new car insurance will also submit the FR 44 documentation.

Floridians understand that the related car insurance coverage referred to as SR-22 insurance, comes with additional charges. Moreover, it’s well understood that such car insurance policies have higher interest rates.

Yet many have the misconception that some Florida insurance companies offer cheap sr22 insurance coverage. However, the misconception stems from the fact that some SR 22 are cheaper because they are connected to license suspension meted as punishment for minor but repeated traffic violations. In some cases, a comparatively cheaper SR 22, may be required from individuals found guilty of not paying child support.

The Misconception about SR 21

Another misconception relates to Florida’s SR 21. This document is required during investigations of a car accident and not as part of license reinstatement proceedings. Florida’s traffic authorities require the submission of SR 21 as proof that the driver responsible for the car accident has adequate car insurance coverage. Otherwise, the driver involved will be charged with an additional traffic violation: Driving Without Insurance (DWI).

Sustainable Finance And The Economy

As a society and economy, you are currently making decisions of systemic proportions. You reduce the load on your ecological systems and successfully limit global warming or climate change and ecosystem degradation will irreversibly change society. In each of these two worlds, business models and technologies are facing fundamental change and so is the value development in investment.

Financial sector: factor for sustainable economy

The financial sector is one of the key factors for the success of the necessary broad transition to a sustainable economy. How private capital contributes to this development and ultimately enables it, plays an important role in the success of sustainable economic activity. The financial sector, through its role as a distributor of capital, is in a unique position to make the necessary transition to a carbon neutral and green economy mainstream. It can incentivize and more easily and cheaply capitalize companies that are positioning themselves for future success. They do this by managing their climate risks and environmental influences strategically, purposefully and systematically manage and reduce.

Funding and investing in a sustainable economy ultimately brings financial and multiple societal benefits. This is the starting point of your work in the field of sustainable finance for a fully sustainable financial system.

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Align capital flows sustainably

The financial sector is an elementary part of the solution. To achieve international climate goals and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, investments of two to three trillion dollars per year are required worldwide. However, investments in sustainable business practices are still negligible compared to capital flows that are directed, for example, into fossil energies or high-risk sectors from a sustainability perspective.

The funds required for the transformation must be financed largely from private capital. In doing so, it must be possible to divert the capital through an appropriate management of funds. The goal of every business is to fully leverage the positive impact of the financial sector.

The structurally necessary change in society, the real economy and the financial economy offers not only risks but also enormous opportunities for the financial economy. A structured, systematic and sufficiently forward-looking consideration of these changes in investment. Financing decisions allows risks to be controlled more comprehensively and better, and opportunities to be exploited.

A sustainable financial system understood in this way is future-proof and resilient. It accelerates sustainable change by promoting climate-neutral technologies and business models that are in line with the carrying capacity of the planet.

How Does Politics Affect The Real Estate Investment Market?

Have you ever wondered how politics influence your life? We may or may not agree, but the fact is that it is present in our daily lives and will affect us directly and indirectly. From the way we spend to the way we sell, from small commodities to bigger assets like sell a house. In other words, politics can make an impact in our financial life.

Economic Policy influences sectors of the economy

Many people don’t know, but there are some sectors that are much more affected than others. And, depending on how you are connected to them, you will feel the effects of the Economic Policy carried out in many countries. These strategies used by the Government, therefore, dictate the path for the general functioning of each country.

Today, we live in a scenario of lower basic interest rates, the Selic. Which leaves many rentiers worried about their profitability.

We call rentiers those who invest in fixed income and lend their money to the government in the case of Public Bonds or to banks, finance companies, and companies in the case of private bonds.

When we talk about loans to the government, not from the point of view of those who invest, but from the point of view of those who issue this security, the investment actually becomes a debt. It is simply the Government acquiring money from the population through the issuance of government bonds. And the higher the rate offered to rentiers, the greater the government’s debt to its investors.

This is exactly why economic heading bodies aim to lower the rates even further. This is a way of reducing government spending on paying the fee to rentiers.

Another great reason is the relationship between the basic interest rate and consumption, the lower the rate, the greater the consumption. This is because banks and financial loans and financing define the rate they will charge their customers based on the basic interest rate.

Read also: Hertsmere’s Forthcoming Real Estate Developments Making Borehamwood the Best Place to Live In

The sectors most affected by Economic Policy

As loans and financing become cheaper, people begin to take on this debt – thus increasing their purchasing power. There are several sectors that benefit from the increase in purchasing power that is being intensified from the reduction of the Selic rate, such as the energy sector – since companies in general will start to produce more due to the increase in demand, which will require an increase in production and will take a greater amount of energy.

The infrastructure sector is also affected since, with the economy reheating, construction regains prominence, causing a much greater demand for workers to integrate into the workforce. The tourism sector also evolves a lot – since with the economy returning, the country begins to have more prominence.

The retail sector is directly affected by the increase in consumption, its revenue expands and business expands.

But there is one sector, in particular, that is affected before the others – it is as if it were a mirror of what, in fact, is happening with the economy of a country. It is the real estate sector, which shows exactly the current moment of the economy.

The effects in practice

Do you remember walking the streets in mid-2014? I remember that every day that I passed through the city, I ended up seeing more houses to rent or sell, merchants passing the checkout, not all the stores in the malls were occupied and many properties were empty, so a continuous generation of expenses.

When we talk about investments, there is a modality within the variable income that has a moderate degree of risk and is composed precisely of real estate assets.

real estate fund

Real estate funds suffer directly from changes in the economy according to their composition. Not all real estate funds are always made up of physical properties, as FIIs can invest, for example, in fixed-income assets for real estate purposes, such as real estate bills and receipts, mortgage bills, direct treasury, shares of other real estate funds, fixed income, LIG, etc.

In addition, FIIs can also invest in shares, provided that the corporate purpose of these companies is activities allowed to real estate funds, such as mall managers, real estate developers and brokers, and other companies whose main objective is to invest in the real estate market.

Another important feature of this asset class is that it is composed of a closed-end fund. That is, it is not possible to redeem your shares, only to sell them to other buyers.

Hence the importance of being traded on the stock exchange, as it increases their liquidity due to the ease of access by common investors. FIIs are regulated and supervised by the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM), which is an autarchy linked to the Ministry of Economy.

We can see then that, among the sectors that are most affected by the economy, it is the real estate sector that will exactly reflect the movements caused by the economic policy.

And considering that real estate investment funds carry assets from this same sector, they also end up being directly affected, affecting the value of the share and the dividends paid, which can appreciate in a high scenario or can depreciate in a low scenario.

How Politics and Economy Influence Forex Rates

The foreign exchange market is the world’s largest and most liquid market for trading international currencies. It is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. The forex market has grown in importance as more countries have adopted floating exchange rates after World War II.

The forex market is an international market where one currency is traded for another. The foreign exchange rate, also known as the forex rate, is the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another. The politics of forex are a factor that influences the foreign exchange rates. The economic indicators and currency rates are factors that influence the economics of currencies.

Forex brokers are there to help you place your trades. They are companies that offer a platform for people to trade currencies. They are the middleman between the traders and the banks. Before you decide on placing a trade, you will have to decide on the best broker to meet your needs. Read about top forex brokers review to help you decide on the best forex broker for you.

The Economic Calendar in Forex

In simple terms, the Forex Economic Calendar is a calendar that displays significant economic events that occur around the world. For example, a country’s interest rate decision (affecting the currency), a country’s crude oil inventories (affecting oil prices), and a country’s employment situation (like the NFP in the US, affecting the US dollar).

The economic calendar is an extremely important tool in trading as it points us in the right direction. This allows us to understand when something may happen to the assets involved and how important the event could be to us as we trade.

Factors influencing foreign exchange rates: politics, market, and manipulation

The main factors influencing foreign exchange rates are as follows:

  • Political decisions and special events. Most events on the economic calendar are the result of political decisions, such as changing the central bank’s interest rate or adjusting the minimum wage. These decisions can have a major impact on a currency’s price. There are also major events, such as wars between two countries. This could lead to shifts in supply and demand for certain assets and currencies, which in turn opens up trading opportunities for you!
  • Natural supply and demand. The forex market (and pretty much every market) is driven by sellers (supply) and buyers (demand). Each time supply or demand increases (or decreases), prices move accordingly. So it’s up to us traders to determine why changes in supply or demand are occurring, how that affects the market, and how we make trading decisions based on it.
  • Market manipulation. No market, no matter how large, can escape manipulation – not even the forex market. If a giant bank wants to boost currency prices, it will find a way to do it. So if we see unexpected movements and strange patterns in forex prices that cannot be explained, it could be a result of market manipulation.

Read also: Foreign Exchange Rates Impacts The Economy

Conclusion: The Impact of Politics and Economy on Forex Trading

Forex trading consists of exchanging currencies for each other and measuring their value. It is the largest and most liquid market in the world and can be traded almost daily. At the end of the day, we are all a part of the forex market – because currency transactions are happening behind the scenes every second!

Forex trading gives you a good insight into the development of a country’s economy, strong currencies are associated with healthy economies, and weak currencies with underperforming economies.

Fixed Rate Bonds – What You Need to Know

What is a Fixed Rate Bond?

Fixed-rate bonds are usually issued by governments. They generally have a fixed interest rate for the life of the bond. A fixed-rate bond is a type of debt security that returns a set amount of interest at regular intervals, such as every year or every six months. Fixed-rate bonds are usually issued by governments and offer investors a predictable stream of income over the life of the investment.

What are 1 year fixed rate bonds? 1 Year Fixed-Rate Bond is a type of fixed-rate, non-amortized bond with a maturity date of 1 year. They are made available by banks, investment firms, and other financial institutions.

Advantages of Fixed Rate Bonds

  • Fixed-rate bonds are often referred to as being safer and more stable in comparison to floating rate bonds.
  • Fixed Rate Bonds offer a fixed interest rate for the duration of the bond. The interest rates will not change unless there is a change in the market rates, which would make it more attractive to invest in this type of bond.

This stability helps investors plan their finances with certainty, as they know exactly what they are getting when they purchase this type of bond.

Disadvantages of Fixed Rate Bonds

Fixed-rate bonds are a type of security that pays the same interest rate for the entire term. They are different from floating rate bonds because they have a fixed interest rate.

Fixed Rate Bonds come with their own set of disadvantages. For example, they offer less flexibility than floating rate bonds as the interest rates are fixed for the duration of the bond and cannot be changed to reflect market conditions. This means that if there is an economic downturn, investors in fixed-rate bonds will not be able to take advantage of higher rates as they would with a floating-rate bond.

Fixed Rate Bonds also have an increased risk profile when compared to Floating Rate Bonds because Fixed Rate Bonds have a lower yield than Floating Rate Bonds and so even if there is no change in interest rates, Fixed Rate Bondholders will still lose money.

Read also: Government & Its Role In Economic Growth

How To Buy Fixed Rate Bonds?

Fixed-rate bonds are one of the most common types of bonds. The bond issuer promises to repay the principal at a fixed interest rate for a specific period of time. Let’s take a look at how to buy fixed-rate bonds.

The first step is to decide on the type of bond you want to purchase and find out what it pays in terms of interest. If you’re not sure, consult with an investment advisor or financial planner who can help you make an informed decision. In order to buy a fixed rate bond, the investor must be prepared to pay more money upfront than they would with other types of bonds, such as adjustable-rate or zero-coupon bonds. This is because, at maturity, the value of a fixed-rate bond will be exactly what it was when it was purchased.

The investor must also be willing to accept that their return on this investment will not change over time. This means that if an investor purchases a five-year fixed rate bond that pays 5% in interest annually and the bond’s current value is $1,000, the investor would earn $50 per year for five years. The return on this bond would not change if the interest rate of 5% gets bumped up to 6% or is reduced to 4%.

Purchasing a fixed-rate bond allows investors to purchase an asset with a known value and set investment return at maturity. Fixed-rate bonds are often used by investors who want to purchase assets that have a guaranteed return with little risk of loss.

Ecommerce – Achieving Economic Growth in a New Business Landscape

There is no doubt that ecommerce has reached a level of popularity that spurred economic growth and spawned innovations that changed the business landscape. As a result, governments have to catch up with ecommerce laws and regulations for protecting consumers amidst the tightening competition between online entities.

The ecommerce experience equates to convenience, cost reduction and empowerment to choose the best products from sellers and service providers endorsed by consumers. Despite persistent inflation, the rate by which ecommerce has been growing on a global scale, is on track to surpass the projected sales of $1 trillion at the end of year 2022.

Lately in the US, the increased incidences of gun violence, mass shootings, road rages, unprovoked attacks and unexpected flash floods have been posing as post-pandemic growth barriers for brick-and-mortar stores. Moreover, avoidance of additional expenses in light of rising prices is another reason why the buying public prefer to order or shop online.

Businesses Respond by Reducing Complexities of Online Transactions

Opportunities to increase their market share have been motivating online sellers to reduce the complexities of transacting business online. Business-to-business (B2B) players are in fact attracting new and existing customers with streamlined processes that reduce the challenges posed by conventional trade cycles.

The direct-to-consumer (DTC) approach has been driving ecommerce growth, as this sector is expected to generate about $103.4 million in 2022 through drop-shipping method. Here all that a seller has to do is to maintain a website that serves as a channel for processing retail sales, without need to stock merchandise as physical inventories. The DTC approach fulfills orders by purchasing the goods from a distributor or dealer and have it drop shipped directly at the doorstep of the customer.The efficiency of these online channels has also spurred growth in the ecommerce realm. Increased job and business opportunities are present in the fields of IT services, SEO and digital marketing, as well as website design and development. These entities provide the ecommerce elements that can influence the decisions of online consumers when choosing a seller or online store that can potentially become a regular supplier.

Staying Alive Amidst Massive Number of Ecommerce Sites

Market reports have it that currently, there are as many as 12 million or even up to 24 million active ecommerce websites operating globally. An online commercial outlet therefore can easily get overshadowed or lost among the multitude, if its website was not developed and designed to face tough competitions.

SEO strategies and aesthetic features are not enough in order to stand out and be selected above the rest. Once a new customer arrives at a website, how the site functions and behaves in response to actions launched is important. Features such as having a navigable graphic user interface, multimedia content, virtual shopping cart, accessible extensive payment options and such other applications that create an experience similar to using a computer-based program, all add up as factors that add value to shopping or transacting business online.

If you’re looking for an expert provider of ecommerce website development services. This web developer has earned acclaims for building beautiful platforms capable of quickly achieving ecommerce goals using customer-centric applications like Shopify, Drupal, BigCommerce, WooCommerce and.Magento development,

Credit Union : Accessing Low Cost Funds in Times of Crisis

Economies on all global fronts are experiencing record high inflation rates as the post pandemic period took a turn for the worse when Russia invaded Ukraine. As employers struggle to keep their business afloat, employees on the other hand, rely on their credit union to help them face financial challenges. Even better still is that not a few of these credit organizations are now using online banking apps.

Actually, a credit union is not the same as a trade union or labor union, but basically works more like a bank. It’s a non-profit fund raising organization that aims to pool money by way of deposit contributions coming from union members. As such, a credit union serves only the needs of members, especially as a source of low cost loanable funds.

Any income derived from loans extended to members will either be distributed as dividends or be used in furthering the services being provided to union members. A board of directors decides on how surplus money collected from loan availments, will be allocated or spent.

An example of credit union spending deemed necessary is the development of an app that enables members to access their union bank account online. Similar to how online banking works, a credit union app permits members to quickly check their account balance, make online payments or to transfer funds to accredited payment processors and other financial institutions.

Generally, credit unions do not fail because fund management is carried out with a great deal of transparency. More so, if members use their credit union app to constantly check their account balance. Readers seeking for more information about online banking will find additional resources at Afri Bank Online. As it is, the focus of discussion in this article is about credit unions and their significance to low and middle income employees during times of economic crisis.

What Exactly Does the NCUA Guarantee?

The National Credit Union Administration or NCUA is the credit union counterpart of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC), which offers protection on bank deposits.

If unfortunately a credit union goes bankrupt, the members who still have balances in their personal account can claim and receive the amount from NVAC, provided a claimant has already settled any outstanding loan or liability with the credit union.

The NCUA guarantees deposit amounts of up to $250,000 only. This denotes that members whose credit union deposit exceeded $250k at the time of the union’s bankruptcy, can only recover up to 250K.

The US Congress created the NCUA as guarantee of protection to members. The federal government supports credit unions because they encourage wage earners to save money for future emergency, without need to withdraw their union savings or borrow money from commercial lenders.

However, since the NCUA guarantees only up tp $250.000, it would be advisable to maintain a deposit balance of $250K or below. A worker can simply join another credit union and maintain another deposit account. The NCUA insures deposit balances up to $250,000 per institution and not on a per person basis.

Economy And LA Lyft Accident Lawyer

The course Law for business economists provides business economists with a compact and well-founded legal education.

Basic and additional legal skills are becoming increasingly important in the day-to-day work of business economists.

Sector economic development: Legal job market for Los Angeles Lyft accident lawyer in good shape

The legal profession is on the move. The number of areas in which legal expertise is required is growing. The demand for lawyers, whether for law firms or for companies and associations, has increased.

The need for lawyers continues to grow. However, increasing student numbers could lead to more competition in the coming years.

The industry is also exposed to upheavals caused by current developments. In law, the subject areas and focal points are changing due to international references, the development of society and digitization. For example, data protection law is becoming increasingly important for many companies. It is creating new jobs for data protection officers. Copyright is also benefiting from current political developments.

Economic career prospects: desperately needed qualified Los Angeles Lyft accident lawyers

Qualified lawyers in particular have the very best career prospects. Top law firms such as Los Angeles Lyft accident lawyer are desperately looking for suitable young people.

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In principle, the market for legal advice and civil service is also open for young lawyers. Anyone who aspires to a career as a judge or in a top law firm is more likely to lose out with average final grades. Job advertisements for administrative lawyers in the higher civil service, for example, are regularly advertised with grades in the “satisfactory” range. Additional qualifications such as a longer stay abroad, a foreign master’s degree or practice-oriented experience while studying also make lawyers with average grades attractive employees, especially for businesses.

In general, it makes sense to concentrate on areas of law that are in demand during your studies. Anyone who can show expertise in tax, real estate or insurance law has less competition on the job market than, for example, the classic labor lawyer.

Lawyers are also open to professional fields that are actually more associated with economists, such as jobs in management consultancies or with auditors. Especially those who have looked beyond the legal horizon during their studies can quickly find what they are looking for in these areas.

Politics & Administrative & Rule of Law

Law and politics are in a tense relationship that needs to be shaped productively. Law is the result of political decisions. At the same time, however, the law limits and controls the scope for political action. This special relationship between Administrative Law and politics runs like a double thread through the legal policy work of the foundation.

Administrative Law and The Rule of Law

The elected members of parliament, police officers or judges cannot do what they want in our constitutional state. They have to comply with the requirements that the law gives them.Administrative Law

The Basic Law, which defines your form of government and guarantees everyone their basic rights, is particularly important.

In a constitutional state, everyone must be able to rely on the applicable laws being observed by the state and other fellow citizens. Everyone knows what rights and what obligations everyone has. This is comparable to a contract. Both sides, i.e. the state and its citizens, must observe and comply with the contract. A constitutional state is therefore a state whose laws one can rely on.

A constitutional state also recognizes human dignity and the right of citizens to self-determination. It guarantees the fundamental rights and freedom of citizens. Any restriction of human freedom requires a legal justification. Everything is allowed that is not expressly forbidden.

In summary, this means that the rule of law binds state authority to the applicable law. It protects and secures the freedom of citizens from the state.

Characteristics of a rule of law and Administrative Law

The two most important characteristics of a constitutional state are legal certainty and legal equality:

Legal certainty

All government measures need a basis. This can be expressed well with the question: “Where does it say that the state is allowed to do this?” Legislation is bound by the constitution, administration and the judiciary are bound by law and order. This serves to protect against state arbitrariness. Basic rights are guaranteed and the constitution ensures state order.

Equality under the rule of law

The rule of law also means that the same laws apply to all citizens and that they are treated equally in court.

The Economical Pros and Cons of Casinos

Red Dice

 

Gambling could be a controversial subject in some ways; however, there’s no denying that it’s a ridiculously popular activity. As the figure is widely predicted to grow within the next few years, the worldwide gambling market was said to be worth a staggering $58.9 billion in 2019. In fact, by 2023, it’s going to preferably be worth the maximum amount of $92.9 billion.

It’s clear that gambling could be a widespread activity that isn’t effort any time soon. In 2020, the industry has experienced a large disruption, similar to all others, because of the continued COVID-19 pandemic. More and more people are signing up to online casinos to induce their gambling fix while many land-based casinos and similar venues the planet over remain shuttered. People looking to gamble have resorted to playing casino games instead while major sporting events are canceled or delayed.

For this text, we’ll disregard 2020 as something of an off-year thanks to the pandemic and concentrate on gambling’s effects on the economy pre-pandemic. Now let’s have a glance at the results, both positive and negative, that gambling has on the economy.

Positive Effects

First, we’ll have a glance at land-based casinos. While online gambling is more popular, gambling at a land-based casino remains an enormous industry in itself. The subsequent places, specifically, are ready to thrive due to their casinos and also the multiple gambling opportunities they offer:

  • Macau
  • Las Vegas
  • Monte Carlo
  • Atlantic City

The casinos are especially great for the local economy as they generate a good range of jobs – the larger the positioning, the more jobs there are. They also attract tourists. Capable of attracting countless tourists looking to spend their hard-earned money on slots (or 슬롯 in Hangul) and other games is the massive casino resorts with plenty of entertainment offerings besides gambling, as the various mega-resorts in Macau.

the casinos became a key part of the local tourism industry in some places that are well-known for his or her gambling opportunities. Many roles in other areas exist because there are numerous people coming to go to the casinos. In the urban center, for instance, there are countless people visiting per annum to gamble, and every one type of company and business has inherited existence and is ready to thrive thanks to all this tourism. People may head to Vegas to gamble, but they stay in hotels, erode restaurants, buy things from shops, watch shows, visit local tourist attractions – of these things get pleasure from having the tourist trade, and plenty of of them wouldn’t prosper the maximum amount without the casinos bringing people to town.

So what about online casinos? the most positive effect that online gambling has on the economy is to try and do with taxes. Because online casinos are lots more accessible than playing at land-based casinos, gambling at online ones has been seen as potentially more dangerous. Through one information processing system, you’ll easily access thousands of gambling sites and spend countless hours playing, all without having to depart the house.

However, certain governments have started making their laws on online gambling less strict in recent years. The most reason they’ve decided to legalize it’s, of course, money. By legalizing the act of gambling online, governments can tax it and use it as an additional source of revenue. Since it’s visiting governments it could, at least, go towards projects that benefit people, this does, of course, mean that less money goes to the casino operators. That being said, it’s worth declaring that casino operators aren’t just in it for the money. Most of them accept the responsibility they need and often donate funds to good causes, like gambling addiction charities.

 

ALSO READ: The Relationship Between Politics and the Economy

 

Negative Effects

While gambling can have quite a few positive effects on the economy, it also can have some negative ones.

The main one is gambling addiction. Casino games, both land-based and online, maybe very addictive indeed. What causes people to play them an excessive amount is that the proven fact that you have got an opportunity of winning actual money. Most gamblers are sensible enough to stay to their budget, not overdo things and not let themselves get frenzied. However, some people that gamble finds themselves spending an excessive amount of time and money playing casino games.

In a number of the more extreme cases, people find themselves entering into debt and may find themselves stepping into a spread of other problems. Some folks that are the foremost severely laid low with gambling addiction can even find themselves getting made redundant and losing their homes.

People passionate about gambling can cost society, in general, quite those that aren’t addicted to gambling. As an example, many find themselves having to depend upon some type of state benefit, and a few even require additional medication and/or psychiatrist treatment to assist them to overcome the physical and mental afflictions that they’ve faced through gambling and excessive amount.

There’s also the actual fact that casinos can become too successful. When people gamble an excessive amount online, they’re spending large amounts of cash at a gambling site, which money might be going towards other things like household expenses and leisure activities. While this will be good for the local economy, there’s a risk that it can negatively affect local businesses when a land-based casino attracts large numbers of individuals. If a casino has facilities like a bar and restaurant added to that, for instance, this creates more competition for local venues, which may find themselves missing out on business.

In other words, gambling is a few things that folks can find themselves spending an excessive amount of money on. If this happens, and there are significant numbers of individuals spending large sums on that, this will have a negative effect on the economy because gambling has an excessive amount of money spent thereon at the expense of other things.

 

Politics And Economics Are Extracted

In 2016, with every political incident, fiscal stimulus was gradually extended and central banks reaffirmed their willingness to provide monetary support. This will allow the markets to continue to benefit from the clearest economic recovery since the great financial crisis. The US business cycle is already well advanced, but the Trump effect could make it last even longer. Europe and Japan have lagged behind the international cycle, leaving them with significant growth potential. Anglo-Saxon investors, however, remain wary of Europe, just in case. The political risk in France is estimated to be much higher than at the beginning of 1981 when the presidential elections were unexpectedly won by François Mitterrand. As a result of these fears, European markets continue to underperform and the risk premium of French government bonds has started to rise. In addition, technical market indicators are showing the first signs of weakening. However, thanks to the real economic situation, equity markets are justifiably continuing to rise, albeit with difficulty in Europe due to the many concerns. Perhaps it is the uplifting conditions and their fascination with the political agenda that the markets are ignoring one of the clearest risks of 2017: rising inflationary pressures (see our monthly report, “2017: Be Careful What You Wish For,” January 2017 ). By the way, you can visit this site to find car accident lawyer Los Angeles.

The economy is picking up

The Donald Trump phenomenon continues to amaze everyone. However, the risk of his unpredictability is limited, especially because of his working method, which is much more efficient than it appears. By sending short, superficial messages into the world every day, his communication becomes particularly elastic and his words are interpreted less and less literally. In addition, Donald Trump’s inexperience in key policy areas forces him to surround himself with experienced experts, just like Ronald Reagan did at the time. There is no doubt about his economic vision either. Donald Trump follows a fairly primitive but cohesive mercantilist line, with the state being given a decisive role in supporting the US economy and rebalancing the trade balance. The common thread in the economic measures is therefore quite clear, both for the United States and for the country’s trading partners. Inevitably, the scale of the measures will be tempered by Congress which is very conservative and can veto key fiscal and budgetary matters. The American population is deeply divided, but at the same time most Americans are enthusiastic about the economic prospects: consumer confidence has risen sharply since November 9 last year. More importantly for business investment, the confidence of medium-sized companies has risen sharply since the election and is now at its highest level since 2004. The renewed enthusiasm was boosted by US corporate results, which showed an average growth of 5% in the last quarter of 2016, exceeding analyst expectations in two-thirds of cases. It is also noteworthy that the major political events scheduled for 2017 in Europe are not preventing the economic recovery: the eurozone PMI index once again disproved the most pessimistic expectations by rising 1.6 points in February to 56, the highest level since April 2011. Analysts continue to raise their expectations for 2017 business results and are currently forecasting average growth of 15%. Although the political uncertainty is not making the European markets take full advantage of the economic recovery, a smooth course of the upcoming political events could lead to a significant catch-up of the stock markets and the euro (especially if the elections are won with sound economic programs).

Populist Threat

We should not underestimate the European electoral risk. It is hard to imagine that the populist wind that has been blowing through politics worldwide for more than a year would magically stop at the borders of the eurozone. The highly unequal distribution of the benefits of globalization in developed countries has paved the way for nationalist sentiments, which are exacerbated by migratory flows. If national identity and protectionist reflexes become the main electoral themes, the assessment of the economic impact of election manifestos will fade into the background, opening the door to demagogic proposals that will affect everyone’s prosperity.

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